Exploring Egypt – Pyramids of Giza

I apologize for not posting this Egyptian post for the last several months. The alluring summer weather in Montana drew me outside and away from my computer.

The Sphinx – Giza, Egypt

This final post is focused on the mysterious pyramids on the Giza plateau near Cairo. What can you say about the pyramids that has not already been written? They are the most iconic manmade objects on the planet.

The Giza pyramid complex, also called the Giza Necropolis, includes the Pyramid of Khufu (Great Pyramid of Giza), the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaure as well as the mysterious Sphinx of Giza…all built during the Fourth Dynasty (2613 – 2494 BC.)

The Great Pyramid dominates the Giza plateau reaching to 481 feet. Evidence from the tombs indicate that a workforce of 10,000 laborers working in three-month shifts took around 30 years to build a pyramid!

The sides of all three of the Giza pyramids are astronomically oriented to the north–south and east–west within a small fraction of a degree. There is speculation that the arrangement of the Giza pyramids is a representation of the Orion constellation.

The Sphinx surveys the scene during the nightly light show – Giza, Egypt (2019)

The Great Sphinx of Giza, is a limestone statue of a reclining sphinx, a mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human. Facing directly from west to east, it stands on the Giza plateau on the west bank of the Nile. The face of the Sphinx is generally believed to represent the Pharaoh Khafre.

View of pyramids from Mena House balcony – Giza, Egypt (2013)

In 2013 my group stayed at the Mena House where the Great Pyramids loomed outside our hotel balconies. My stay at this hotel was a major highlight of my 2013 Egyptian visit.

The Mena House has special significance in modern Egyptian history. In 1977 the governments of Egypt and Israel sat down together at the Mena House in a quest for a peace settlement (also attending were American and United Nations representatives). The results of the Mena House Conference led to the Camp David Accords.

The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM), also known as the Giza Museum, was in the final stages of construction when I visited in October 2019. Described as the largest archaeological museum in the world, construction was set to be complete in the first quarter of 2020.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the museum is now not scheduled to open until early 2021. The main attraction will be the first exhibition of the full tomb collection of King Tutankhamun. The collection includes about 5000 items in total and will be relocated from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Other objects will be relocated from storages and museums in Luxor, Minya, Sohag, Assiut, Beni Suef, Fayoum, the Delta, and Alexandria. I hope to return to see this new museum in all its splendor.

We passed by the museum construction on the way to the Giza Pyramids. The museum is sited on 120 acres of land approximately a mile from the Giza pyramids and is part of a new master plan for the plateau…a fitting tribute for the ancient civilization of Egypt.

Arab Spring protestors – Cairo, Egypt (2013)

As I traveled during the Arab Spring in 2013 and when I returned to Egypt in 2019 there were marked differences. However, there were also heart breaking similarities in the local living conditions and political environment.

A darker side of the Arab spring – Giza, Egypt (2013)

Since 2011 the modern state of Egypt has endured wide unrest and is now ruled by a general of the Egyptian military, el-Sisi. He was elected with 96% of a widely questioned vote in 2014 and continues to rule the Egyptian state at this time. During my two trips to Egypt some societal changes have occurred but most Egyptian people are still mired in poverty which was evident throughout Cairo.

Urban pasture – Giza, Egypt (2013)
Pyramid of Khafre – Giza, Egypt (2013)
Pyramid of Djoser or Step Pyramid (27th century BC) – Saqqar, Egypt

The Step tomb is one of the oldest pyramids in Egypt built in the 27th century BC for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser. The pyramid originally stood 205 ft tall, with a base 358 ft × 397 ft, and was clad in polished white limestone. This tomb is located in Saqqara. Saqqara is a vast, ancient burial ground, serving as the necropolis for the ancient Memphis and is located some 19 miles south of modern-day Cairo.

Our guide Ahmed El Prince snaps a photo of the 2013 explorers – Giza plateau, Egypt
Our guide Gladys does a selfie with the 2019 explorers – Giza, Egypt

Exploring the pyramids has changed a bit since Mark Twain visited them 150 years ago in 1867.

Great Pyramid of Khufu was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World – Giza, Egypt

In Innocents Abroad, Twain describes his pyramid adventure: At the end of the levee we left the mules and went in a sailboat across an arm of the Nile….A laborious walk in the flaming sun brought us to the foot of the great pyramid of Cheops…Of course we were besieged by a rabble of muscular Egyptians who wanted the contract of dragging us to the top–all tourists areOf course we contracted with them, paid them, were delivered to the hands of the draggers, dragged up the pyramids, and harried and bedeviled for baksheesh from the foundation clear to the summit.

Kevin, Alexander and I explore the crowds at the Sphinx….(2019) – Giza, Egypt

I can assure you that I did not climb the pyramids with or without the assistance of muscular Egyptians!…and we took an air conditioned bus to the base.

A poem by Isaac McLellan, a nineteenth century poet, helped me appreciate these ancient wonders.

Yet pilgrims from enlightened climes
Come, o’er departed pomp to muse;
To trace their glories, — and their strange
Dim hieroglyphics to peruse;
To wipe the drifting sands away,
And ope their treasures to the day.

My friends Jan & Gary enjoying our last night at the Conrad Hilton – Cairo, Egypt (2019)

Great Cheops! on the topmost stone
I’ve stood, of thy vast pyramid;
And by the blazing torch-light read
The secrets in thy caverns hid;
And scanned those blackened walls with dread,
Reared to enclose thy kingly dead
.

My friend Jerry overcomes claustrophobia to hold up the King’s Chamber in the Great Pyramid of Khufu – Giza, Egypt (2019)

How thrilled the soul with crowding thought,
As far the eye the desert viewed,
Tracing Sycara’s massive piles,
Soar o’er the boundless solitude,
Uprearing their dark steps on high,
As if to prop the bending sky.

Beneath, the fertilizing Nile
Poured its full flood o’er smiling plains;
Changeless as when Sesostris led
The myriads of his wide domains,
And here encamped, or reared the mound
Of the tall pyramid from the ground
.

Gift from my Egyptian friends (2013)

Ma’a as-salamah….

Exploring Egypt – Alexandria

During both of my trips to Egypt I was delighted to add a journey to Alexandria. However in 1867 it was the only port of entry into mysterious Egypt. Aboard the steam ship Quaker City Mark Twain was recording his five month journey throughout Europe, the Holy Land and Egypt.

Wall paintings – on the road to Alexandria

After arriving in Alexandria Twain would travel the 140 miles to Cairo via train. Twain’s acerbic observations of the 19th century American tourist in Egypt were brilliant:

“In the morning the lost tribes of America came ashore and infested the hotels and took possession of all the donkeys…I believe I would rather ride a donkey than any beast in the world. He goes briskly, he puts on no airs, he is docile, though opinionated. Satan himself could not scare him, and he is convenient–very convenient. When you are tired riding you can rest your feet on the ground and let him gallop from under you.”

Rich farmlands of the Nile delta on the road to Alexandria

Twain mailed over 50 letters back to the US during his voyage as well as keeping detailed journals that resulted in his book, “The Innocents Abroad aka The New Pilgrims’ Progress.” This book, published in 1869, became one of the most popular books in 19th century America. Parker Brothers even made it into a board game.

Pepsi is everywhere – Alexandria, Egypt

Alexandria is said to be the greatest historical city with the least to show. Founded by Alexander the Great, the city gave rise to the last great Pharaonic dynasty (the Ptolemies), provided the entry into Egypt for the Romans and nurtured early Christianity before rapidly fading into near obscurity when Islam invaded the country (8th century AD).

Alexandria continued to decline throughout the years of Muslim rule but enjoyed a renaissance upon Napoleon’s invasion in 1798. It became one of the Mediterranean’s busiest ports from that point forward.

Street art depicting ancient Egypt

Ancient Alexandria is almost as intangible to us as Atlantis. It is a place of legendary status that connects to half remembered tales of Cleopatra, the Seven Wonders of the World and the great library. It borders on the mythological.

Catacombs of Kom Ash-Shuqqafa – Alexandria, Egypt

The Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa are an interesting site to visit when in Alexandria. They are the the largest Roman burial site in Egypt and considered on of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. It seems every age has its list of world wonders…

Decorated sarcophagus – Alexandria, Egypt

The Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa consist of three tiers of tombs and chambers cut out of rock to a depth of about 35 meters. The catacombs merge Roman, Greek and Egyptian culture; some statues are Egyptian in style, yet bear Roman clothes and hair style while other features share a similar style. It is estimated that over 300 souls were buried in these catacombs…may they Rest in Peace.

Drawings above sarcophagus – Catacombs Kom El Shoqafa, Alexandria, Egypt

Alexander the Great is allegedly buried in his namesake city but the location of the tomb is still unknown…another mysterious dimension to this ancient and modern city.

A carved Agathodaemon in the form of a snake is flanking both sides of the entrance to the inner tomb – Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa, Alexandria, Egypt

The most inspiring site in Alexandria is the modern library fashioned after the ancient library of Alexander and completed in 2002. The library is a result of an initiative by the Egyptian government, UNESCO, and Alexandria University and was undertaken “with the aim of re-establishing Alexandria as one of the great intellectual and cultural centers of the twenty-first century”.

The modern library – Alexandria, Egypt

The original library was founded by the first Ptolemy pharaoh in late 3rd century BC and eventually housed over 750,000 texts. It became one of the greatest of all classical institutions stimulating Euclid to develop geometry and where Aristarchus discovered that the earth revolves around the sun. And don’t forget that Julius Caesar put a torch to the great library in 48 BC while pursuing Pompey.

The dimensions of the project are vast: the library has shelf space for eight million books,with the main reading room covering 20,000 square metres (220,000 sq ft) on eleven cascading levels. The complex also houses a conference center; specialized libraries for maps, multimedia, the blind and visually impaired, young people, and for children; four museums; four art galleries for temporary exhibitions; 15 permanent exhibitions; a planetarium and a manuscript restoration laboratory.

Bibliotheca Alexandrina – Alexandria, Egypt
“From knowledge to wisdom” – Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria, Egypt
Bibliotheca Alexandrina – Alexandria, Egypt

The library’s architecture is equally striking. The main reading room stands beneath a 32-meter-high glass-panelled roof, tilted out toward the sea like a sundial, and measuring some 160 m in diameter. The walls are of gray Aswan granite, carved with characters from 120 different human scripts.

Jan and Gary visit the library – Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria, Egypt
Inscription below Gandhi’s bust -Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria, Egypt

In the era of self quarantine the Ghandi inscription takes on new meaning. “But I refuse to be blown off my feet by any.”

Where are we? – Bibliotheca Alexandrina – Alexandria, Egypt

Bibliotheca Alexandrina is a modern wonder of our world…From knowledge to wisdom.

Pompey’s pillar – Alexandria, Egypt

Pompey’s Pillar, a massive 30 meter hit pink granite column looms over the debris of the glorious ancient settlement of Rhakoti, the original village on the site where Alexandria was founded in 331 BC. The column was given its name by travelers who remembered the murder for the Roman general Pompey by Cleopatra’s brother even though historians have indicated that this pillar was built 200 years after his murder.

Pompey’s pillar – Alexandria, Egypt
Pompey’s pillar – Alexandria, Egypt

Another interesting site is Fort Qaitby (15th century AD), located in the east harbor of Alexandria. The fort sits on the remains of the ancient Pharos lighthouse.

Fort Qaitby located near the ancient lighthouse Pharos- Alexandria, Egypt

Pharos, the 300 foot high lighthouse built in 280 BC, was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the tallest building in antiquity besides the Great Pyramid. The lighthouse survived into the 1300s but earthquakes and tsunamis finally destroyed the structure.

Some stones of the Pharos lighthouse are integrated into Fort Qaitby but other fragments of the ancient lighthouse can be found on the floor of the Mediterranean surrounding the fort today.

Harbor of Alexandria
Downtown Alexandria

Nicholas Michell, a 19th century poet, captures the magic of Alexandria:

One city yet, and Nile’s time-hallowed shore 
Our fondly-lingering step detains no more. 
Domes, minarets, their spiry heads that rear, 
Mocking with gaudy hues the ruins near; 
Dim crumbling colonnades, and marble walls, 
Rich columns, broken statues, roofless halls; 
Beauty, deformity, together thrown, 
A maze of ruins, date, design unknown, — 
Such is the scene — the conquest Time hath won — 
Such the famed city built by Philip’s son. 
Ah, me! ‘mid tottering towers, and regal tombs, 
Tall sculptured columns, echoing catacombs, 
How Turkish piles, and works of modern art, 
Chafe with romance, and bid high dreams depart!

Be encouraged.

Bibliotheca Alexandrina – Alexandria, Egypt

Exploring Egypt – Abu Simbel

I will continue my posts about my Egyptian travels as the corona virus engulfs our world. The pandemic highlights to me the need to enjoy every moment as you travel and savor each experience as we continue to live our lives–even after coronavirus. I hope you enjoy my Egyptian travel reflections.

On the way to Abu Simbel in early morning – Sahara west of Lake Nasser, Egypt

In 2013 I had the opportunity to to visit the ancient site of Abu Simbel, located around 175 miles south of Aswan along the shores of Lake Nasser. It is about a 3 hour bus ride, under armed guard, from Aswan to Abu Simbel and one of the few ways to get to this mysterious temple.

The armed guard escort added an extra dimension to my trip but I was comforted to know that we would likely not be hijacked on our way to or from this site. You may recall that in 2013 Egypt was under the direction of the Muslim Brotherhood and there was unrest throughout the country.

Abu Simbel temple – Lake Nasser, Egypt

Abu Simbel’s twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside in the 13th century BC, during the 19th dynasty reign of the Pharaoh Ramesses II. They serve as a lasting monument to the king and his queen Nefertari.

UNESCO project of moving Abu Simbel – Lake Nasser, Egypt

Abu Simbel, a UNESCO World Heritage site, was moved to avoid being flooded during the construction of the High Aswan Dam.

Between 1964 and 1968 the entire site was carefully cut into large blocks (up to 30 tons), dismantled, lifted and reassembled in a new location 65 meters higher and 200 meters back from the river, in one of the greatest challenges of archaeological engineering in history. It is now a UNESCO World Heritage site.

I begin my tour of the temple – Abu Simbel, Egypt

I have vivid memories of reading about Abu Simbel’s relocation in my 6th grade Weekly Reader but never imagined that I would witness this amazing accomplishment in person 50 years later. It was breathtaking!

Nile River – Aswan, Egypt

Lake Nasser was created as a result of the construction of the Aswan High Dam on the Nile. This construction of the dam occurred between 1958 and 1970. The resulting lake was named after Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the leaders of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.

Nile Basin map

The lake is 298 mile long and 10 miles across at its widest point. It covers a total surface area of 5,250 km2 (2,030 sq mi) and has a storage capacity of some 132 km3 (32 cu mi) of water, one of world’s largest man-made lakes. 25% of the lake extends into the country of Sudan.

Abu Simbel – Lake Nasser, Egypt
Abu Simbel – Lake Nasser, Egypt

I will end this blog with a poem by John Bruce Norton (1815 – 1883) about Abu Simbel:

His is the shrine of Silence, sunk and hewn    
Deep in the solid rock: its pillars rise    
From floor to roof, like giants, with fixed eyes    
And palms crossed on their breasts; e’en at mid-noon    
A dim light falls around, as though the moon           
Were peering at the temple from the skies.    
The foot falls soundless on the sand, that lies    
A carpet by long centuries thick-strewn.    
The mighty shapes that guard the solemn pile,    
Unburied, after ages, from the tomb            
Heaped on them by the blast of the simoom,    
Sit at the portal, gazing, night and day,    
O’er the lone desert, stretching far away,    
And on the eternal flood of Father Nile.

Alan at Abu Simbel

Exploring Egypt – Aswan High Dam, Temple of Philae

Aswan High Dam marker – Aswan, Egypt (2013)

Since the late 1800’s France and the United Kingdom have played roles in governing Egypt. Napoleon was present in the early 19th century and Egypt was an English protectorate from 1883 until 1953. In 1953 Egypt became an independent republic with notable leaders like Nasser and Mubarak who brought many aspects of modern society to the people of Egypt. One of the major projects built in modern times was the Aswan High Dam.

The Aswan High Dam built between 1960 and 1970 captures floodwater during rainy seasons and releases the water during times of drought. The dam generates enormous amounts of electric power — more than 10 billion kilowatt-hours every year.

Lake Nasser – Aswan High Dam, Egypt

We were shuttled to the site of Philae, another ancient Egyptian religious site.

View from the Philae temple complex – Aswan, Egypt

Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians’ interactions with many gods believed to be present in, and in control of, the world. Rituals such as prayer and offerings were provided to the gods to gain their favor.

Formal religious practice centered on the pharaohs, the rulers of Egypt, believed to possess divine powers by virtue of their positions. They acted as intermediaries between their people and the gods, and were obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain Ma’at, the order of the cosmos. The state dedicated enormous resources to religious rituals and to the construction of temples, like Philae.

Philae, like many other religious sites, became places where early Christians worshipped during Roman times.

The sacred scarab – Philae, Aswan, Egypt

Partially flooded by the Aswan lower dam’s construction in 1902, the Philae temple complex was dismantled and relocated to Agilkia island, as part of a wider UNESCO project related to the 1960s construction of the Aswan High Dam. 

We were able to enjoy other tours around the Aswan area including a felucca trip to a Nubian village as well enjoying an afternoon at the local perfume factory.

Navigating near the High Aswan Dam – Aswan, Egypt
Montana traveler, Samuel, observes the glass blowing demonstration at perfume factory . Samuel, his brother Alex and their parents were on 2019 tour with me! – Aswan, Egypt
View from Movenpick Aswan Resort Hotel – Aswan, Egypt (2013)
Unfinished Obelisk – Aswan, Egypt

We visited the site of an ancient quarry where we viewed the unfinished obelisk, the largest known ancient obelisk. Its creation was ordered by Hatshepsut (1508–1458 BC). The unfinished obelisk is nearly one-third larger than any ancient Egyptian obelisk ever erected.

If finished it would have measured around 42 metres (138 ft) and would have weighed nearly 1,200 tons. Other ancient Egyptian obelisks have been transported to Rome and Paris. A weighty souvenir…..

Philae – Aswan, Egypt

I conclude this blog with excerpts from a poem, “At Philae“, by British poet, Hardwicke Drummond Rawnsley. Rawnsley (1851-1920) was an Anglican priest, poet, local politician and conservationist. He became nationally and internationally known as one of the three founders of the National Trust in the 1890s. He captures the magic of the moment at Philae:

“Above the palms uprose a temple fair

The Grecian monarch for Osiris made,

You well might think that down the water stair

Would throng the priests, or fill the colonnade,……

I stepped to land, I passed the towered gate

Where the fierce Ptolemy lifts his axe of might,

Saw thro’ the gloom the chapel walls relate

Of Horus born to slay the dark by light,

And heard the parable of song made plain,

That tames the hand and bids it sow the grain….”

View from Philae – Aswan, Egypt

Exploring Egypt – Sailing South on the Nile – Luxor to Aswan

My journey from Luxor to Aswan continued via a Nile riverboat which is like staying in a luxury hotel on water. As the countryside flowed by our river boat, I reflected on more Egyptian history.

Our docked Nile river boat; three stories of luxury – Luxor, Egypt

In my last blog I described the 3,000 years of Pharaonic rule of Egypt that ended when Octavian (the future Roman emperor Augustus), defeated Mark Antony, and deposed Cleopatra in 30 BC.

Egypt became a Roman province and continued under Roman rule as part of Byzantium until the Muslims conquered Egypt in 640 AD.

After 640 AD Egypt became a part of various Muslim dynasties and caliphates and was ultimately absorbed into the Ottoman empire in the 16th century. 

Transport in Edfu…a slice of Mr. Toad’s wild ride…

One of the first stops along the Nile after we departed Luxor was the ancient city of Edfu. This is where we experienced the rambunctious transport mode of horse and buggy which took us to and from the Temple of Horus.

The town of Edfu is known best for the major Ptolemaic temple, Temple of Horus, that was built between 237 BC and 57 BC.

Temple of Horus – Edfu, Egypt
Heiroglyphics – Temple of Horus, Edfu, Egypt
Temple of Horus – Edfu, Egypt
Statue of Horus – Temple of Horus, Edfu, Egypt
Driving to the Temple of Horus with my friend Ruthie – Edfu, Egypt (2013)
Sky view – Temple of Horus, Edfu, Egypt
Transportation in Edfu
Locks of Esna, Nile River, Egypt

We navigated two sets of locks on the Nile to the south of Luxor.

Vendors vying for our attention – Locks of Esna, Nile River, Egypt
Market – Edfu, Egypt
Buddies enjoying the moment – Edfu, Egypt

As our journey continued up the Nile we docked near the entrance to the Temple of Kom Ombo. It was within walking distance of our riverboat and an unusual double temple.

Temple of Kom Ombo

The temple was constructed during the Ptolemaic dynasty, 180–47 BC. The building is unique because its ‘double’ design meant that there were courts, halls, sanctuaries and rooms duplicated for two sets of gods.

Taking the throne – Kom Ombo Temple, Egypt

The southern half of the temple was dedicated to the crocodile god Sobek, god of fertility and creator of the world. Meanwhile, the northern part of the temple was dedicated to the falcon god (“Horus the Elder”).

The crocodile god Sobek, god of fertility – Kom Ombo Temple, Egypt
Felucca (sailboat) spotted on the Nile
Sunset – Nile River

Nineteenth century poet Hardwicke Drummond Rawnsley, who was an Anglican priest, poet, and conservationist, made this observation of ancient Egypt in his poem entitled “At Kom Ombo”:

There lies a bank of yellow-golden sand

Where from a tower falls crumbling to the tide,

Above, half hid, two sanctuaries stand.

Twin temples side by side.

In one was evil honored, in one Good,

Hymns to Light there, and here to Dark were raised,

In both that subtle dragon of the flood.

The crocodile, was praised.

Exploring Egypt – Luxor, Valleys of the Kings and Queens

Ancient recorded history reaches back over 5,000 years in Egypt and tracks 39 Pharaonic dynasties. This period extends from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, to 30 BC (over 3,000 years)!

In 526 BC the Persians invaded Egypt and reigned until the country fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC. The Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom formed in the aftermath of Alexander’s death, ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.

Ramses II (1279 -1213 BC), Karnak Temple Complex – Luxor, Egypt

It is hard to appreciate the ancient history of Egypt and the impact its culture has had on western civilization. However my Nile riverboat cruise offered me an opportunity to observe how ancient and modern Egyptian societies have adapted to the landscape over the millennia. The concept of deep time was on full display throughout my Egyptian journey and many times I felt like a time traveler stealing a peek into a bygone mystical era.

In 2013 my Nile riverboat cruise began in Luxor and sailed south (or up) the Nile to Aswan. In 2019 I started in Aswan and sailed north (or down) the Nile to Luxor. For this narrative I will begin my Nile cruise at Luxor.

Luxor, or Thebes as it was known in ancient times, was the ceremonial capital of ancient Egypt and is 315 air miles south of Cairo. Luxor has frequently been characterized as the “world’s greatest open-air museum,” as the ruins of the temple complexes at Karnak and Luxor stand within the modern city. Across the River Nile are the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens.

Luxor Temple constructed in 1400 BC (2013) – Luxor, Egypt

One of our first destinations was the Luxor Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage site. Unlike the other temples in Luxor, Luxor temple is not dedicated to a cult god or a deified version of the pharaoh in death. Instead, Luxor temple is dedicated to the rejuvenation of kingship; it may have been where many of the pharaohs of Egypt were crowned in reality or conceptually (as in the case of Alexander the Great, who claimed he was crowned at Luxor but may never have traveled south of Memphis, near modern Cairo).

Luxor Temple constructed in 1400 BC (2019) – Luxor, Egypt

Between 2013 and 2019 three statues of Ramses II had been restored to the facade of the Luxor Temple. It was a positive sign that the Egyptian government is paying attention to their priceless historic sites and continuing to restore them.

Avenue of Sphinxes leading from Luxor Temple to Karnak Temple is over 1.5 miles long – Luxor, Egypt

Another famous ancient site located within the modern city of Luxor was the Karnak Temple complex.

The Great Hypostyle Hall is one of the most visited monuments of ancient Egypt. The structure was constructed during the 19th Egyptian Dynasty (c. 1290–1224 BC). – Karnak Temple complex, Luxor, Egypt

The Karnak Temple complex was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979. The key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used. Construction of the Karnak temples started in around 2000 BC and continued through 30 BC.

Approximately thirty pharaohs, including Ramses II and Tutankhamen, contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size, complexity, and diversity not seen elsewhere. Few of the individual features of Karnak are unique, but the size and number of features are overwhelming.


The tour of Luxor included some time whiplash. After we visited the ancient sites scattered throughout Luxor we were privileged to visit a modern elementary school in Luxor. Egypt provides free compulsory education for children ages 6 – 14.

Our reception by the Franciscan Primary School students and staff was overwhelming…the joy of learning was present and inspiring….

New excavations – Valley of the Kings, Egypt

We traveled around 18 miles from Luxor to the Valley of the Kings. Rock cut tombs were excavated for the pharaohs in this valley from the 16th to the 11th century BC (nearly 500 years).

The God Horus – Valley of the Kings, Egypt

The intact tomb of the boy-king Tutankhamen was discovered in 1922 by British archeologist Howard Carter in the Valley of the Kings. The 4,000 articles found in King Tut’s tomb occupy an entire wing of the Cairo museum.

The most splendid architectural find was a stone sarcophagus containing three coffins nested within each other. Inside the final coffin, which was made out of solid gold, was the mummy of the boy-king Tutankhamen, preserved for more than 3,000 years. Most of these treasures are now housed in the Cairo Museum.

Tutankhamen’s tomb – Valley of the Kings
Entrance to Pharaoh Merenptah tomb – Valley of the Kings, Egypt
Getting the right photo angle in a tomb – Valley of the Kings, Egypt
Creating modern souvenirs for the tourists – Luxor, Egypt
 Mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut  (1479-1458 BC) – Valley of the Queens, Egypt
Colossi of Memnon – Luxor, Egypt

During my 2013 trip in Luxor some of our group, including my friend Kent’s 90-year old mother, embarked on an early morning hot air balloon ride over the Valley of the Kings.

I will never forget how excited she became when she shared her hot air balloon ride story….It was her adventure of a life time.

Stay curious.

Exploring Egypt – Cairo

I have been to Egypt twice – February 2013 and October 2019. I will attempt to combine pictures and experiences from both trips to give you a sense of this ancient land that continues to evolve today.

Mural of Joseph’s vision and he and Mary headed to Egypt. 25% of Egypt’s population are Coptic Christians. Cairo, Egypt 2013

Each of my trips to Egypt began in Israel. Unlike Joseph, Mary, and Jesus, I did not flee to Egypt to escape Herod, nor travel via steam ship like Mark Twain did in 1867… I flew on an airplane from Tel Aviv to Cairo.

Famous landmark murals along highway – Cairo, Egypt

Both of my trips began and ended in Cairo. Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in Egypt, Africa, the Middle East, and is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the world with a population of over 20 million. The ruins of Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt, are engulfed by modern day Cairo. Cairo dates from the 10th century AD and was established by the Tunisian Fatimids.

Pollution over Cairo – Cairo, Egypt 2019

Flying into and out of Cairo can be quite daunting but it pales in comparison to negotiating Cairo traffic.

Cairo traffic jam
Where is the tow truck? – Cairo, Egypt 2013
Traces of the revolution overshadows the Egyptian Museum – Cairo, Egypt 2013

A visit to the Egyptian Museum is like entering into a vast storehouse where someone has left all the exhibits in disarray. There is an entire floor of items removed from King Tutankhamun’s tomb, the most famous Egyptian pharaoh (18th dynasty) reigning from 1334 – 1325 BC.

Steer clear of the scaffolding – Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt
King Tut’s chair – Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt (2019)

In 2013 we weren’t allowed to take any photos inside the museum. However, in 2019 you could pay a camera fee or take cell phone photos for free.

One of King Tutankhamun’s sarcophagus – Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt (2019)

A unique item in the Egyptian museum is the Narmer Palette. This siltstone artifact is over 5,000 years old, is called “the first historical document in the world” and depicts, in hieroglyphics, the merging of Upper and Lower Egypt–the beginning of the rule of the Pharoahs that would last over 3,000 years!

Narmer Palette, Egyptian Museum – Cairo, Egypt

In 2020 Egypt plans to open the Grand Egyptian Museum located near Giza. Many of the artifacts that I saw in the Egyptian Museum will be relocated to this location.

Another site we visited in Cairo was the Citadel. It was the seat of government in Egypt and the residence of its Islamic rulers for nearly 700 years from the 13th to the 19th centuries.

Muhammad Ali Pasha Mosque, Citadel – Cairo, Egypt
Decorative fountain in courtyard of Muhammad Ali Pasha Mosque, Citadel – Cairo, Egypt

The Great Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha is found inside the Citadel grounds. This mosque was built in the early 19th century and is one of the most famous landmarks within the city of Cairo.

Ceiling of Muhammad Ali Pasha (Alabaster) Mosque – Citadel, Cairo, Egypt

No visit to Cairo would be complete without a visit to a bazaar to collect souvenirs and tour the narrow streets of Old Cairo.

Shopping splendor – Cairo, Egypt
President el-Sisi peeks out from the souvenir shop – Cairo, Egypt

As I explore Egypt in the next few blogs I am reminded of a Mark Twain quote from his book The Innocents Abroad that is as relevant today as it was 150 years ago:

“Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness….”

Jerusalem, Israel – 10 & 11 Oct 2019

We concluded the final few days of our Israel trip visiting the Church of Holy Sepulchre, exploring the ancient City of David, and hiking the ramparts and bell towers of Jerusalem.

Ceiling of St. Helena’s chapel (Armenian Orthodox) – Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, Israel

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built around what is believed to be the site of Jesus’s crucifixion, burial, and resurrection. Matthew 27: 27-66, Matthew 28: 1-10

The first basilica was built by Roman emperor Constantine between 326 and 335 AD at the suggestion of his mother St. Helena. The current complex church structure has existed at this site for over 1,000 years having survived earthquakes, fires and regime changes.

Mary Magdalene altar (Roman Catholic) – Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, Israel

Medieval European maps showed Jerusalem as the center of the world (omphalos) and more specifically the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Catholikon Dome over medieval center of the world (omphalos)- Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, Israel

Fierce disputes, lasting centuries, between Christian creeds over ownership of the church were largely resolved by an Ottoman decree issued in 1852. Still in force and known as the Status Quo, it divides custody among Armenians, Greeks, Copts, Roman Catholics, Ethiopians and Syrians. Every day the church is ironically unlocked by a Muslim key holder acting as a “neutral” intermediary.

Debra at the Crucifixion Altar (Greek Orthodox) located over rock outcrop of Golgatha – Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, Israel
St. Longin’s Chapel (Greek Orthodox) – Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, Israel
Greek Orthodox priest attending to the Holy Fire – Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, Israel

South of the Old City is the oldest part of Jerusalem, the City of David. There is evidence that the Jebusites, a Canaanite people, lived there over 3,000 years ago. David supposedly conquered the city and made it his capital in about 1,000 BC. Samuel 5: 6-17

Walls of ancient Jerusalem -City of David, Jerusalem Walls National Park, Jerusalem, Israel

One of our adventures in the City of David was to don our water shoes and slosh through thigh deep water flowing from Gihon springs through a 2,000 foot subterranean tunnel built by King Hezekiah in the 7th century BC. King Hezekiah built the tunnel to conceal the water supply for Jerusalem from the Assyrian invasion. 2 Kings 20:20

Sloshing through Hezekiah’s tunnel – City of David, Jerusalem, Israel

Not for the faint of heart or claustrophobes…..

Bell tower – Lutheran Church of the Redeemer, Jerusalem, Israel

Vaughn and I decided to climb the 177 steps of the bell tower of the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer to view Old Jerusalem. After climbing a narrow winding staircase we were rewarded with amazing views….and the bells luckily did not ring while we were in the stairs.

Dome of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre – Church of the Redeemer bell tower, Jerusalem, Israel
Dome of the Rock, Mount of Olives – Church of the Redeemer bell tower, Jerusalem, Israel

No Jerusalem tour would be complete without walking the ramparts of the old city. As we walked along the southern rampart we encountered many pilgrims reciting biblical texts in German.

Church of Dormition – Southern rampart, Jerusalem, Israel

A prominent site on the southern rampart is the Church of the Dormition. This Neo-Romanesque church dominates Mt. Zion and stands on the site where the Virgin Mary is said to have fallen into an “eternal sleep” or dormition. The current church on this site was built in the early 20th century for German Kaiser Wilhelm II and may explain why there were so many German pilgrims on the rampart.

Church of Dormition – Southern rampart, Jerusalem, Israel

Gaylene was an amazing guide for our travels and I wish her safe and blessed travels with her future tours.

The faithful pilgrims (Chloe, me, Gaylene, Vaughn, Debra) – Ecce Homo, Jerusalem, Israel
Proud shopkeeper in a used book store showing off her living quarters door – Jerusalem, Israel

It has been a joy to share some of my adventures experienced in this holy land. Some of my favorite memories include meeting local people enjoying life each day and learning from them not to fear the other…a lesson I need to relearn every day.

May you travel in an awakened way,

Gathered wisely into your inner ground.

That you may not waste the invitations

Which wait along the way to transform you.

John O’Donohue, To Bless the Space Between Us

Jerusalem – 07 & 08 Oct 2019

Ceiling – St. Peter in Gallicantu, Jerusalem

We drove from the Dead Sea to Jerusalem where we would spend the next five days. Yom Kippur, a Jewish high holy day, altered our travel plans and as a result we ended up spending a pleasant two nights at the pilgrim house at St Peter at Gallicantu just south of Old Jerusalem rather than Bethlehem.

Getting public transportation on holy days or Shabbat (sunset Friday to sunset Saturday) is very sketchy in Jerusalem.

A tower of spices with a temple on top – Old Jerusalem, Israel
Pink cauliflower in the market – Old Jerusalem, Israel
Church of St. Peter in Gallicantu – Jerusalem, Israel

Standing to the east of Mount Zion, on the slope overlooking the City of David and the Kidron Valley, this church commemorates the traditional site of St. Peter’s reported denial of Jesus which fulfilled the prophecy of denial (Mark 14:72).

View from St. Peter in Gallicantu church toward Dome of the Rock and Old Jerusalem’s city wall – Mt. Zion, Israel

Haram esh-Sharif, the “Noble Sanctuary” or Temple Mount, is a vast rectangular esplanade in the southeastern part of the Old City. Traditionally the site of Solomon’s Temple, it later housed the Second Temple, enlarged by Herod the Great and destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD.

In the evening we visited the Western Wall one of the retaining walls of Temple Mount. To get near the wall you are required to go through a series of metal detectors and are subject to physical searches.

Celebrating at Western Wall of Temple Mount – Old Jerusalem, Israel
Western wall showing the division between men and women – Old Jerusalem, Israel
Dome of the Rock – Jerusalem, Israel

The Rock is variously believed to be where Abraham was asked to sacrifice Isaac, where Muhammad left the earth on his Night Journey and the site of the Holy of Holies of Herod’s Temple. The site is considered a sacred place for Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.

Dome of the Chain in front of Dome of the Rock – Old Jerusalem, Israel
13th century tiling of the Dome of the Chain ceiling surpasses tiling of Dome of the Rock – Jerusalem, Israel

The Dome of the Chain stands at the approximate center of the Haram esh-Sharif (Temple Mount), which according to one theory, equated to the center of the world. Its name derives from the legend that a chain once hung from the roof, and whoever told a lie while holding it would be struck dead by lightning.

Golden Gate (Gate of Mercy) walled off in 7th century AD – Old Jerusalem, Israel

We visited the Golden Gate, one of the original Herodian gates . According to Jewish tradition, the Messiah will enter Jerusalem through this gate which is said to be the reason why the Muslims walled it up in the 7th century CE.

Skull rock configuration near garden tomb. Some 19th century archeologists argued that this skull shaped hill was Golgotha (Mark 15:22) – Jerusalem, Israel
Flowers near the garden tomb – Jerusalem, Israel

We visited the garden tomb which has been argued to be the location of Jesus’ tomb rather than the Church of Holy Sepulchre. Archeologists have since debunked this theory but the garden tomb has beautiful gardens that were worth the visit.

Door of St. Peter in Gallicantu church – Mt. Zion, Israel

Exploring Jerusalem is always filled with new discoveries….and I am forever grateful to have had the opportunity to visit these mystical places.

Mt Tabor & Megiddo, Israel – 05 Oct 2019

Brilliant bougainvillea – Tiberias, Israel

We headed south on this day taking in more biblical historic sites including Mt. Tabor and Megiddo, wove our way through Tel Aviv and finally ended up at the Crowne Plaza near the Dead Sea.

Mt Tabor, Israel
St Francis of Assisi – Mt Tabor, Israel

Traveling up a narrow winding road we finally made it to Mt. Tabor, the site of the biblical transfiguration. Matthew 17:1-9. The grounds, church and views were breathtaking.

Megiddo, Israel

We continued south to visit Tel Megiddo where archeologists have discovered signs of human habitation from 7,000 years BCE.

It’s location in the Wadi Ara allowed Megiddo to control an ancient international trade route between Mesopotamia and Egypt.

Ancient stables – Megiddo, Israel

The Bible describes King Solomon’s building his palaces at Megiddo (1 Kings 9:15) and it was a thriving Canaanite city-state in the second and third millennia BCE. The city appears on inscriptions in Karnak, Egypt where Pharaoh Shishak describes his tenth century BCE conquests throughout Canaan.

Megiddo, Israel

Megiddo is usually identified as Armageddon, the site of John’s apocalyptic vision of the battle between the forces of good and evil. Revelation 16:16

“Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted” Matthew 5:4